Atletico were without talismanic forward Antoine Griezmann and only had two shots on target and 26 percent possession.
Saul Niguez's first-half goal sealed a slice of history as Diego Simeone's side bounced back from its Champions League group-stage exit.
Atletico are third in the standings on 33 points, one behind Valencia and three behind Barcelona, who can restore their five-point lead at the top when they visit Villarreal later on Sunday.
"L'amour est une question de personnes" — Christophe Willem bisexuel
Bien qu'il s'assume pleinement, l'interprète de Double je n'a jamais souhaité défendre une sexualité plutôt qu'une autre . Si les mélodies lui ont été inspirées au Brésil lors des Jeux olympiques, Christophe Willem y aborde tous les thèmes.
Betis have now won just once in the league since September as their slide continues, putting coach Quique Setien under serious pressure.
And they might have doubled the advantage nearly instantly, but Angel Correa passed up better options in shooting straight at Antonio Adan. "Betis wanted to hurt us with the ball".
Oblak then produced a wonder save to turn Cristian Tello's sweetly struck half-volley behind for a corner.
However, the visitors showed why they have now gone a year without defeat away in La Liga as Atletico stood strong when faced with a barrage of Betis crosses into their box in stoppage time to record a ninth clean sheet in 15 La Liga games.
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