This refers to solar eclipse.
This means research can pinpoint the first year of Merneptah as 1210/1209±1 year.
Prof Humphreys said: "Solar eclipses are often used as a fixed point to date events in the ancient world. And the Sun stood still, and the Moon stopped until the nation took vengeance on their enemies".
'Modern English translations, which follow the King James translation of 1611, usually interpret this text to mean that the sun and moon stopped moving, ' he said. But going back to the original Hebrew text, we determined that an alternative meaning could be that the sun and moon just stopped doing what they normally do: "they stopped shining", he added.
Humphreys said that if the biblical account means that the light from the sun appeared to stop shining, it may refer to an eclipse.
'This interpretation is supported by the fact that the Hebrew word translated "stand still" has the same root as a Babylonian word used in ancient astronomical texts to describe eclipses'. It documents that after Joshua ushered the people of Israel into Canaan, a territory of the ancient Near East that encrusted modern-day Israel and Palestine, he prayed to the Sun and the Moon.
Along with the Bible, the researchers also analyzed the Merneptah Stele, an Egyptian text dating from the reign of the Pharaoh Merneptah, son of the well-known Ramesses the Great. Subsequently, the scientists were able to understand that the only annual eclipse visible from Canaan in the time period 1500 to 1050 BC took place on the afternoon of October 30, 1207.
Aside from the Bible, Humphreys and Waddington made use of the Merneptah Stele, a large granite block now kept in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
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'It also states that he defeated the people of Israel in a campaign in Canaan.
"Using these new calculations, the reign of Merneptah began in 1210 or 1209 BCE". From the calculations, which took into account the fluctuations in Earth's orbit and rotation, Humphreys and his team posited that the only annual eclipse that could have taken place while the Israelites were in Canaan occurred in 1207 B.C.
The solar eclipse event is mentioned in the Bible, and it occurred on 30 October 1,207 BC- exactly 3,224 years ago on today's date. Furthermore, the finding would help researchers to date the reigns of the pharaohs Ramesses the Great and Merneptah to within a year. So they have a consistent story. It is mentioned in the book of Joshua in the Old Testament, but scientists have only now calculated its exact date precisely.
Historians have previously used these two texts to try to date the possible eclipses, but not successful as they were only looking at total eclipses where the disc of the sun appears to be completely covered by the moon. But Sir Colin along with his co-author Graeme Waddington devised an "eclipse code".
'We used the latest astronomical data to input into our specially written eclipse code.
The calculated date of this solar eclipse is 30 October 1207 BC in the afternoon which is in the reign of Merneptah, when it was known from his Stele that the Israelites were in Canaan.
Researchers have distinguished the date of what could be the remotest solar eclipse yet chronicled.
The annular eclipse gives a "ring of fire" appearance and ancient scholars used the same word was used for both total and annular eclipses.
He is remembered principally for the colossal statues he commissioned and for his massive building programme. In the past, the reigns of those rulers could only be placed within a range of a few centuries or so.
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