Following a deadly accident in July 2011, the authorities ordered that operating speeds be lowered to 300 kph due to safety concerns.
The trains will service the route from China's capital Beijing to Shanghai, making the 1,250-kilometre (777-mile) journey in under four hours and 30 minutes.
The limit was reduced to 300kph after 40 people died in a high-speed train crash near Wenzhou, east China's Zhejiang Province, in July 2011.
China started to run its first 350-kilometres per hour high speed train between Beijing and Tianjin in August 2008 and opened at least three more such high-speed lines nationwide in the following years.
"These trains are so popular that the tickets for today's services sold out a week ago", Huang Xin, an official with China Railway Corporation (CR), said Thursday.
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A total of 14 trains a day will run between the two cities at the higher speed. China holds complete intellectual property rights on the trains.
Asia and Europe now operate some of the fastest trains in the world, including the Shanghai Maglev, which has a maximum speed of 267 miles per hour and an average speed of around 150 miles per hour, and Italy's AGV, which has a maximum speed of about 220 miles per hour.
The train has more than 2500 sensors, 500 more than in the previous models, capable of collecting real-time information from all carriages.
China is lobbying with India build a high speed train in the New Delhi-Chennai sector for which it is conducting a feasibility study.
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