United States president Donald Trump has vowed not to let North Korea achieve this goal.
Moon immediately convened an emergency meeting of his national security council to discuss the launch.
The missile was sacked from a site near Kusong, 100km north of Pyongyang, near its border with China. Mr Moon called the launch a "grave challenge" to the peace and security of the Korean Peninsula and the worldwide community.
The latest test was also the North's first launch since a controversial USA missile defence system deployed in the South became operational on May 2 and follows a failed April 29 ballistic missile test.
Japan also lodged protest to North Korea over the missile launch through the Japanese Embassy in Beijing.
The missile traveled for about 30 minutes from Kusong, landing in the Sea of Japan. He said Sunday's launch may have been of a new mobile, two-stage liquid-fueled missile North Korea displayed in a huge April 15 military parade.
Tong Zhao, an analyst with the Carnegie-Tsinghua Center for Global Policy, said if the missile does have the range to hit Guam, it could give North Korea "a regional nuclear deterrence", meaning it might not need to pursue an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) which could reach the United States mainland.
Weapons experts and government officials believe the North has accomplished some technical progress with those tests. North Korea has consistently test-fired missiles in that direction.
The South's foreign ministry issued a statement denouncing the North's behavior.
The North has attempted but failed to test-launch ballistic missiles four consecutive times in the past two months, but has conducted a variety of missile testing since the beginning of a year ago.
It demanded that Pyongyang stop provocative acts and return to the path of negotiations for denuclearization.
But Jeffrey Lewis, director of the East Asia nonproliferation program at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey in California, said at the time that there was an "even chance" that they were intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs).
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The JCS warned that the North would face "strong retaliations" from the allies if it continues to ignore their warning messages and sticks to provocations.
Abe says "Japan is closely cooperating with the USA and South Korea and analyzing the situation as we firmly respond to the development". Guam is 3,400 km from North Korea. The two also vowed to maintain a thorough military readiness against Pyongyang based on the strong Seoul-Washington alliance.
Spicer said the North has been a "flagrant menace for far too long".
The North's state media said Saturday that the nation would bolster its nuclear capability unless the United States abandons its hostile policy.
China also expressed its opposition to the North's provocation and called on all sides to refrain from heightening regional tensions. "The launch is yet another evident violation of multiple UNSC resolutions", the statement said.
A Ministry spokeswoman, Hua Chunying, said in a statement Sunday faxed to The Associated Press that the situation on the Korean peninsula is "complex and sensitive".
The missile was sacked from a site near the north-western city of Kusong.
The launch, which Tokyo said could be of a new type of missile, is a direct challenge to the new South Korean president elected four days ago and comes as U.S., Japanese and European navies gather for joint war games in the Pacific.
Though North Korea recently accused the Central Intelligence Agency of plotting to kill leader Kim Jong Un and though it seems the U.S.is close to a conflict with the country, Trump's first reaction to Saturday's military test was to think of Russian Federation.
It didn't specifically mention the missile test.
The move came days after President Moon Jae In took office in the South pledging to engage in dialogue with Pyongyang.
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